Conflicts, Collaboration, and Customers

With Ron Jeffries comment on my “Negotiating Estimates” post, I think we’ve reached agreement on a common problem, even if we disagree (perhaps?) over how to fix it. As I noted in my short answer, my position is that abuse of estimates stems from a deeper issue. Changing a practice won’t eliminate the abuse. Changing culture will. Changing that culture (where possible) involves convincing the players that it’s in their best interests to change, which it is.

This is my biggest objection to #NoEstimates. It makes an illogical leap that the practice is responsible for problems rather than some underlying dysfunction without showing causality. This putting the cart before the horse risks encouraging people to espouse action that is probably both ineffective and detrimental to their relationship with their customer. The likeliest outcome I see from that is more problems, not fewer.

The word “customer” was a point of contention:

It’s my position that, for better or for worse, there is a customer/provider relationship. Rather than attempt to deny that, it makes more sense, in my opinion, to concentrate on having the best possible customer/provider relationship. While poor customer service is extremely common, I’d hope everyone can think of at least one person they enjoy doing business with, where the relationship is mutually beneficial. I know I certainly can, which stands as my (admittedly unscientific) evidence that the relationship need not be adversarial. A collaborative, mutually beneficial relationship works out best for both parties.

“Collaborative”, however, does not mean conflict free. In his post “Against Estimate-Commitment”, Jeffries states:

The Estimate-Commitment relationship stands in opposition to collaboration. It works against collaboration. It supports conflict, not teamwork.

I both agree and disagree.

There will be conflict. Different team members will have different wants. Different stakeholders will have different wants. The key is not in preventing conflict, but resolving it in a way agreeable to all parties:

Recognizing, rather than repressing conflicts might even be beneficial:

What is critical, is that the relationship between the parties not be one-sided (or even be perceived as one-sided). In-house IT often has the peculiar characteristic of seeming one-sided to both customers and providers. The classic model of IT provision is, in my opinion, largely to blame. It seems almost designed to put both parties at odds.

The problem can be fixed, however, with cultural changes that encompass both IT and the business units it serves. One such change is moving from a project-centric to a product-centric model that aligns the interests of both groups. This alignment cements the relationship, making IT a valuable partner in the process rather than an obstacle to be overcome to get what’s wanted/needed. Relationships are key to success. By structuring the system so that each group’s incentives, conflicts and all, are aligned to a common goal, the system can be made to work. We’ve certainly had plenty of examples of what we get from the opposite situation.

“Microservices, SOA, and EITA: Where To Draw the Line? Why to Draw the Line?” on Iasa Global

In my part of the world, it’s not uncommon for people to say that someone wouldn’t recognize something if it “bit them in the [rude rump reference]”. For many organizations, that seems to be the explanation for the state of their enterprise IT architecture. For while we might claim to understand terms like “design”, “encapsulation”, and “separation of concerns”, the facts on the ground fail to show it. Just as software systems can degenerate into a “Big Ball of Mud”, so too can the systems of systems comprising our enterprise IT architectures. If we look at organizations as the systems they are, it should be obvious that this same entropy can infect the organization as well.

See the full post on the Iasa Global site (a re-post, originally published here).

Form Follows Function on SPaMCast 347


This week’s episode of Tom Cagley’s Software Process and Measurement (SPaMCast) podcast features Tom’s essay on project management in an Agile environment (aka “Project Management is Dead”) and a Software Sensei column on testing from Kim Pries in addition to a Form Follows Function installment on microservices, Devops and Conway’s Law.

In SPaMCast 347, Tom and I discuss my “Fixing IT – Microservices and DevOps to the Rescue?” post, specifically on how microservice architectures are not just a technical approach but an organizational one as well.

Fixing IT – Remembering What They’re Paying For

Dan Creswell‘s tweet said it well:

Max Roser‘s tweet, however, illustrated it in unmistakable fashion:

Success looks like that.

Not everyone gets to create the kind of magic that lets a blind woman “see” her unborn child. Nearly everyone in IT, however, has the ability to influence customer satisfaction. Development, infrastructure, support, all play a part in making someone’s life better or worse. It’s not just what we produce, but also the process, management and governance that determines how we produce. The product is irrelevant, it’s the service that counts. The woman in the picture above isn’t happy about 3D printing, she’s overjoyed at the experience it enabled.

Customer service isn’t just a concern for software vendors. It’s remarkably easy to destroy a relationship and remarkably hard to repair one. The most important alignment is the alignment of concerns between those providing the service and those consuming it. Mistrust between the two is a common source of “Shadow IT” problems, and far from helping, cracking down may well make things worse.

Building trust by meeting needs creates a virtuous circle. Satisfaction breeds appreciation. Appreciation breeds motivation. Motivation, in turns, yields more satisfaction.

As the saying goes, you catch more flies with honey.

Form Follows Function on SPaMCast 339


This week’s episode of Tom Cagley’s Software Process and Measurement (SPaMCast) podcast features Tom’s essay on demonstrations and a Form Follows Function installment on microservices, SOA, and Enterprise IT Architecture.

For SPaMCast 339, Tom and I discuss my “Microservices, SOA, and EITA: Where To Draw the Line? Why to Draw the Line?” post.

Fixing IT – Microservices and DevOps to the Rescue?

Eberhard Wolff‘s question set the stage.

Adrian CockCroft‘s reply tied everything together.

Conway’s Law is the common thread tying microservice architectures (MSAs) and DevOps together. Significantly, this common thread runs through the entire organization, not just the IT parts. As I noted in my previous post, paying attention to this principle allows you to work with, rather than against, the grain of an organization. Working with the grain of the organization is key, because DevOps, lovely as it is, is not an end, but a means. The desired end, as identified by Mike Kavis in “Is DevOps What Organizations Really Seek?” is to “become high-performing organizations”.

Of all the attributes of such an organization (as identified by Kavis): “Strong Leadership”, “Strong Culture”, “Sound Architecture”, etc., the most important is “High Customer Satisfaction”. For many organizations, high customer satisfaction is a problem area for IT. In a recent article on Business Insider, Red Hat’s CEO Jim Whitehurst noted an increased interest in DevOps on the part of CIOs to deal with what he terms IT’s “fight for its life”:

That’s because IT departments say they had better figure out how to be faster, cheaper, and better. If they don’t, the company’s employees will no longer depend on them. They bring their own PCs, tablets and phones to work and they buy whatever cloud services they want to do their jobs. And the CIO will find his budget increasingly shifted to other manager’s pockets.

IT has has a history of cycles of neglect or rejection of new/disruptive technologies followed by catch-up crises: PCs in the 80s, Web in the 90s, BYOD/Cloud/IOT/etc. now. What’s different this time is the increasing level of technical knowledge and access to solutions outside of IT. As Krishnan Subramanian has noted, playing catch-up may become less and less viable:

MSAs enable flexible applications via composing vertical slices of business functionality rather than horizontal layers of technical concerns. These same principles can apply to higher levels of abstraction up to the enterprise’s IT architecture. Likewise, DevOps incorporates the same viewpoint shift in terms of the IT organization. This architectural change (both technical and business) can allow for integration between IT and the business it enables. As Twila Day recently noted, this integration goes far beyond mere alignment into “active partnership between IT and your business units”:

Partnership means working together, side by side. It means that technology leaders are actively involved in strategic development at the highest levels of your organization. It means that all the way up and down your organization, any talented person can propose an innovative idea, tactic or strategy, regardless of where s/he works. The business might have an idea first, or IT might have it first. No matter. What’s important is that the two groups work side by side to accomplish the most important business objectives.

Transforming IT from an adversary into a partner is primarily a cultural shift that involves both parties if it’s to be successful. Organizational and technical architecture cannot be neglected, however, in that they can either help or hinder that transformation. DevOps can facilitate this via its focus on the product rather than any one project (which is a concern shared by the customers) and by having the flexibility to tailor its pace to that of the customer rather than forcing a one size fits all (aka one size fits none).

Microservices, SOA, and EITA: Where To Draw the Line? Why to Draw the Line?

Surveying and drafting instruments and examples

In my part of the world, it’s not uncommon for people to say that someone wouldn’t recognize something if it “bit them in the [rude rump reference]”. For many organizations, that seems to be the explanation for the state of their enterprise IT architecture. For while we might claim to understand terms like “design”, “encapsulation”, and “separation of concerns”, the facts on the ground fail to show it. Just as software systems can degenerate into a “Big Ball of Mud”, so too can the systems of systems comprising our enterprise IT architectures. If we look at organizations as the systems they are, it should be obvious that this same entropy can infect the organization as well.

One symptom of this entropy is when the dividing lines blur, weakening or even removing constraints. While the term “constraint” commonly has a negative connotation, constraints provide the structure and definition of a system. Separation of concerns, encapsulation, and DRY are all constraints that are intended to provide benefit. We accept limits on concerns addressed, accessibility of internals and/or instances of code or data in order to reduce complexity, not just check off a philosophical box. If we remove or even just relax these types of constraints too much, we incur risk.

This blurring of lines can occur at any level and on multiple levels. Additionally, architectural weakness at a higher level of abstraction can negate strengths at lower levels. A collection of well-designed systems will not ensure a coherent enterprise IT architecture if there is overlap and redundancy without a clear understanding of which ones are authoritative. Accidental architecture is no more likely to work at higher levels of abstraction than lower ones.

Architectural design, at each level of granularity, should be intentional and appropriate to that level. The ideal, is not to over-regulate, but to strike a balance. Micromanaging internals wastes effort better spent on something beneficial; abdicating design responsibility practically guarantees chaos. An additional consideration is the fit between the human and technological aspects. Conway’s law is more than just an observation, it can be used as a tool to align applications to a specific business concern as well as aligning development teams to specific applications/application components.

Just as a carver takes note of the grain of the wood being shaped, so should an architect work with rather than against the grain of the organization.

Jessica Kerr’s post, “Microservices, Microbusinesses”, captures these concepts from the viewpoint of microservice architectures. Partitioning application concerns into microservices allows for internal flexibility at the cost of external conformance to necessary governance. As Kerr puts it, “…everybody is a responsible adult”:

That’s a lot of overhead and glue code. Every service has to do translation from input to its internal format, and then to whatever output format someone else requires. Error handling, caching or throttling, failover and load balancing and monitoring, contract testing, maintaining multiple interface versions, database interaction details. Most of the code is glue, layers of glue protecting a small core of business logic. These strong boundaries allow healthy relationships with other services, including new interactions that weren’t designed into the architecture from the beginning. For all this work, we get freedom on the inside.

Kerr also recognizes the applicability of this trade-off to the architecture of the organization:

Still, a team exists as a citizen inside a larger organization. There are interfaces to fulfill. Management really does need to know about progress. Outward collaboration is essential. We can do this the same way our code does: with glue. Glue made of people. One team member, taking the responsibility of translating cards on the wall into JIRA, can free the team to optimize communication while filling management’s strongest needs.

Management defines an API. Encapsulate the inner workings of the team, and expose an interface that makes sense outside. By all means, provide a reference implementation: “Other teams use Target Process to track work.” Have default recommendations: “We use Clojure here unless there’s some better solution. SQL Server is our first choice database for these reasons.” Give teams a strong process and technology stack to start from, and let them innovate from there.

“Good fences make good neighbors” not by keeping out, but by channeling traffic into commonly understood and commonly accepted directions. We recognize lines so as to influence those aspects we truly need to influence. More importantly, we recognize lines to prevent needless conflict and waste. The key is to draw the lines so that they work for us, not against us.

Form Follows Function on SPaMCAST 319


I’m back with another appearance on Tom Cagley’s Software Process and Measurement (SPaMCast) podcast.

SPaMCast 319 features Tom’s “Why Are Requirements So Hard To Get Right?” segment, followed by Jo Ann Sweeny’s new column, “Explaining Change”. Tom and I close it out with a discussion of one of my previous posts, “Fixing IT – Credible or Cassandra?”.

Fixing IT – Credible or Cassandra?

Portrait of Cassandra in front of Troy

In Greek mythology, Cassandra was a princess of Troy who possessed the gift of prophecy, but was cursed never to be believed. I was reminded of the story by a tweet from Peter Kretzman:

Credibility is a precious commodity in the business world. It’s hard to earn and yet can be lost astonishingly easily. Poor customer service, regardless of whether it’s due to malice, apathy, or just plain ignorance, damages trust.

Likewise, commitment mismatches can leave customers (internal and/or external) disaffected. The project that will be “out of sight, out of mind” for IT is the product that they will be saddled with for years to come. IT’s perceived lack of commitment (justified or not) is a source of conflict and mistrust.

Lack of a business focus is a credibility killer as well. Things like indulging faddish practices, essentially engaging in one-sided experiments with the enterprise’s money, are seen as evidence of immaturity. A dictatorial attitude toward technology issues is typically resented (regardless of whether the opinion is correct). Failure to communicate business value, whether out of arrogance or ignorance, can lead to ill-advised decisions on the part of the business. When you’re asking for seven figures and “trust me” is your sole justification, you cannot complain when you get turned down.

Things that might seem purely technical can damage the relationship with the customer. Technology for technology’s sake, putting your vision ahead of the customer’s needs, ignoring user experience, and inadequate attention to quality can all lead to a loss of trust.

Quality and reliability can be particularly problematic. Stepping into the breach and heroically fixing issues can be perceived as admirable in some organizations. All a customer sees is an outage. When dial tone services go down, so too does credibility. As Matt Ballantine observed in his post “Firefighting”:

But if your world is one where you can only justify your own existence through the solving of problems that are of your own creation, you’re in trouble long term. That’s where IT has been – and why commodity services have become so pervasive so quickly. The IT team wins no points for fixing stuff that’s gone wrong when someone else can be providing that stuff without it failing all the time.

Working with the business, IT can serve as a powerful force multiplier. Opportunities can be seized and risks averted. For that to happen, however, IT has to be heard. The less we shoot ourselves in the foot, the better chance we have.

“Microservices: The Return of SOA?” on Iasa Global

In the early 2000s, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) was the hot topic. Much ink was spilled in touting its potential. Effort and money was expended in attempts to secure its promised benefits. Like object-orientation and reuse before it, the reality of SOA was not able to live up to the hype. Unlike them, SOA had better penetration into the business realm and having soared higher in the corporate hierarchy, fell further into disrepute. Before the decade was done, SOA had become a dirty word (although services had become ubiquitous).

Read “Microservices: The Return of SOA?” on Iasa Global for my take on how microservices compares to SOA (for better or worse).