“Bumper Sticker Philosophy” on Iasa Global Blog

Yeah!  Wait, what?

YAGNI: You Ain’t Gonna Need It.

Sound bites are great – short, sweet, clear, and simple. Just like real life, right?

Seductive simple certainty is what makes slogans so problematic. Uncertainty and ambiguity occur far more frequently in the real world. Context and nuance add complexity, but not all complexity can be avoided. In fact, removing essential complexity risks misapplication of otherwise valid principles.

See the full post on the Iasa Global Blog (a re-post, originally published here).

Accidental Architecture

Hillside Slum

I’m not sure if it’s ironic or fitting that my very first post on Form Follows Function, “Like it or not, you have an architecture (in fact, you may have several)”, dealt with the concept of accidental architecture. A blog dedicated to software and solution architecture starts off by discussing the fact that architecture exists even in the absence of intentional design? It is, however, a theme that seems to recur.

The latest recurrence was a Twitter exchange with Ruth Malan, in which she stated:

Design is the act and the outcome. We design a system. The system has a design.

This prompted Arnon Rotem-Gal-Oz to observe that architecture need not be intentional and “…even areas you neglect well [sic] have design and then you’d have to deal with its implications”. To this I added “accidental architecture is still architecture – whether it’s good architecture or not is another thing”.

Ruth closed with a reference to a passage by Grady Booch:

Every software-intensive system has an architecture. In some cases that architecture is intentional, while in others it is accidental. Most of the time it is both, born of the consequences of a myriad of design decisions made by its architects and its developers over the lifetime of a system, from its inception through its evolution.

The idea that an architecture can “emerge” out of skillful construction rather than as a result of purposeful design, is trivially true. The “Big Ball of Mud”, an ad hoc arrangement of code that grows organically, remains a popular design pattern (yes, it’s a pattern rather than an anti-pattern – see the Introduction of “Big Ball of Mud” for an explanation of why). What remains in question is how effective is an architecture that largely or even entirely “emerges”.

Even the current architectural style of the day, microservices, can fall prey to the Big Ball of Mud syndrome. A plethora of small service applications developed without a unifying vision of how they will make up a coherent whole can easily turn muddy (if not already born muddy). The tagline of Simon Brown’s “Distributed big balls of mud” sums it up: “If you can’t build a monolith, what makes you think microservices are the answer?”.

Someone building a house using this theory might purchase the finest of building materials and fixtures. They might construct and finish each room with the greatest of care. If, however, the bathroom is built opening into the dining room and kitchen, some might question the design. Software, solution, and even enterprise IT architectures exist as systems of systems. The execution of a system’s components is extremely important, but you cannot ignore the context of the larger ecosystem in which those components will exist.

Too much design up front, architects attempting to make decisions below the level of granularity for which they have sufficient information, is obviously wrong. It’s like attempting to drive while blindfolded using only a GPS. By the same token, jumping in the car and driving without any idea of a destination beyond what’s at the end of your hood is unlikely to be successful either. Finding a workable balance between the two seems to be the optimal solution.

[Shanty Town Image by Otsogey via Wikimedia Commons.]

“When Silos Make Sense” on Iasa Global Blog


Separation of Concerns is a well-known concept in application architecture. Over the years, application structures have evolved from monolithic to modular, using techniques such as encapsulation and abstraction to reduce coupling and increase cohesion. The purpose of doing so is quite simple – it yields software systems that are easier to understand, change, and enhance.

See the full post on the Iasa Global Blog (a re-post, originally published here).

“Finding the Balance” on Iasa Global Blog

Evening it out

One of my earliest posts on Form Follows Function, “There is no right way (though there are plenty of wrong ones)”, dealt with the subject of trade-offs. Whether dealing with the architecture of a solution or the architecture of an enterprise, there will be competing forces at work. Resolving these conflicts in an optimal manner involves finding the balance between individual forces and the system as whole (consistent with the priorities of the stakeholders).

See the full post on the Iasa Global Blog (a re-post, originally published here).

There is No “Best”

You're the best

What is the best architectural style/process/language/platform/framework/etc.?

A question posed that way can ignite a war as easily as Helen of Troy. The problem is, however, that it’s impossible to answer in that form. It’s a bit like asking which fastener (nail, screw, bolt, glue) is best. Without knowing the context to which it will be applied, we cannot possibly form a rational answer. “Best” without context is nonsense; like “right”, it’s a word that triggers much heat, but very little light.

People tend to like rules as there is a level of comfort in the certainty associated with them. The problem is that this certainty can be both deceptive and dangerous. Rules, patterns, and practices have underlying principles and contexts which give them value (or not). Understanding these is key to effective application. Without this understanding, usage becomes an act of faith rather than a rational choice.

Best practices and design patterns are two examples of useful techniques that have come to be regarded as silver bullets by some. Design patterns are useful for categorizing and communicating elements of design. Employing design patterns, however, is no guarantee of effective design. Likewise, understanding the principles that lie beneath a given practice is key to successfully applying that practice in another situation. Context is king.

Prior to applying a technique, it’s useful to ask why? Why this technique? Why do we think it will be effective? Rather than suggest a hard and fast number (say…5 maybe?), I’d recommend asking until you’re comfortable that the decision is based on reason rather than hope or tradition. Designing the architecture of systems requires evaluation and deliberation. Leave the following of recipes to the cooks.

Architecture – Finding Simple Solutions Over a Lifetime of Problems

On Roger Sessions’ LinkedIn group, Simpler IT, the discussion “What do I mean by Simplifying” talks about finding simple solutions to problems. Roger’s premise is that every problem has its own inherent complexity:

Let’s say P is some problem that we need to solve. For example, P could be the earthquake in Tom’s example or P could be the need of a bank to process credit cards or P could be my car that needs its oil changed. P may range in complexity from low (my car needs its oil changed) to high (a devastating earthquake has occurred.)

For a given P, the complexity of P is a constant. There is no strategy that will change the complexity of P.

Complexity and Effectiveness

Roger goes on to say that for any given problem, there will be a set of solutions to that problem. He further states “…if P is non-trivial, then the cardinality of the solution set of P is very very large”. Each solution can be characterized by how well it solves the problem at hand and how complex the solution is. These attributes can be graphed, as in the image to the right, yielding quadrants that range from the most effective and least complex (best) to least effective and most complex (worst). Thus, simplifying means:

The best possible s in the solution set is the one that lives in the upper left corner of the graph, as high on the Y axis as possible and as low on the X axis as possible.

When I talk about simplifying, I am talking about finding that one specific s out of all the possible solutions in the solution set.

Simplification, as a strategy, makes a great deal of sense in my opinion. There is, however, another aspect to be considered. While the complexity of a given problem P is constant, P represents the problem space of a system at a given time, not the entire lifecycle. The lifecycle of a system will consist of a set of problem spaces over time, from first release to decommissioning. An architect must take this lifecycle into consideration or risk introducing an ill-considered constraint on the future direction of the product. This is complicated by the fact that there will be uncertainty in how the problem space evolves over time, with the uncertainty being the greatest at the point furthest from the present (as represented by the image below).

product timeline

Some information regarding the transition from one problem space to the next will be available. Product roadmaps and deferred issues provide some insight into what will be needed next. That being said, emergent circumstances (everything from unforeseen changes in business direction to unexpected increases in traffic) will conspire to prevent the trajectory of the set of problem spaces from being completely predictable.

Excessive complexity will certainly constrain the options for evolving a system. However, flexibility can come with a certain amount of complexity as well. The simplest solution may also complicate the evolution of a system.

Not All Gold Glitters

ooh, shiny

After two back-to-back posts, I thought I was done with YAGNI, simplicity, and economy of design – at least for a while. But then Jef Claes published “But I already wrote it”.

Jef’s post dealt with how a colleague had implemented a new feature in a much richer manner than anticipated. When the analyst confirmed that the implementation was more than what was needed, Jef recommended trimming out the extra, while his colleague argued that since it was done, it should be left as is. After pointing out the risks and costs of the additional complexity, Jef’s colleague came around (which is, in my opinion, the correct way to do YAGNI – a consideration of the costs and benefits, rather than a reflex). Then came the comments.

One commenter took exception to Jef’s statement that “code is just a means to an end; the side product of creating a solution or learning about a problem”. For that commenter, that attitude would “inevitably” lead to writing bad code. “The way you write good code is by loving good code”.

Another suggested that the situation taught his colleague never to take initiative and had ruined his/her job satisfaction. “From now on, he should consider himself to be a code monkey whose job is to accept the designer’s vision, regardless of how short-sighted or limited it is, and produce a working program.” This commenter stated that Jef should have waited to see if additional maintenance costs had materialized before deciding.

Needless to say, I disagree with both.

The first commenter above needs to understand that the application belongs to the customer. For functionality, substituting your judgment for the customer’s is unprofessional. If I ask for a garage and you build a mansion while my back’s turned, you don’t get paid. Taking pride in how you deliver value is a virtue provided that you remember that the customer is the one who determines what they value.

The second commenter assumes that Jef’s colleague will be discouraged because his initiative wasn’t accepted. If that’s the case, perhaps another line of work would be appropriate. As noted above, the customer determines what is needed and we should be taking pride in fulfilling those needs. They also assume that the design was short-sighted and limited, but the basis for that is never provided.

The second commenter’s suggestion that the code should have been left as is and only changed if a problem emerged is even more problematic. Taking on risk and potential expense on the customer’s behalf is not responsible behavior. Additionally, decisions are not made in a vacuum – each choice builds on earlier choices to enable or constrain (often both). Making those decisions without a rational basis is equally irresponsible.

On a personal level, I can sympathize that someone has expended effort and is proud of what they’ve accomplished. However, putting our own wants above the needs of our customers does not advance the profession. Delivering requested value, without surprises, does.