Innovation in Inner Space

KGL dragoons at the Battle of Garcia Hernandez

 

Long-time readers know that I have a rather varied set of interests and that I’ve got a “thing” for history, particularly military history. Knowing that, it shouldn’t come as a surprise that I was recently reading an article titled “Cyber is the fourth dimension of war” (ground, sea and air being the first three dimensions). It’s not a bad article, but it is mistaken. Cyberwar is the fifth dimension of war. The first dimension, today and for all of time past, is the human mind. Contests are won or lost, not on some field of battle, virtual or physical, but in the minds of the combatants. For example, if you believe you’ve lost, then you have.

The painting shown above illustrates this nicely. During the Napoleonic period, infantry that was charged by cavalry would form a square, presenting a hedge of bayonets to all sides. Horses, being intelligent creatures, will not impale themselves on pointy things, thus the formation provides protection to the infantry who were free to fire at the encircling cavalry. Charging disciplined, unbroken infantry was a losing proposition for the cavalry under almost all circumstances. Note the use of “almost”.

At the Battle of García Hernández, July 1812, something unusual happened. One French formation was late in firing, and a wounded horse ran blindly into the square, breaking it up. The attacking British (Hannoverian, to be precise) cavalry rode into the gap and forced the surrender of the French infantry that comprised it. This, of course, was simply a matter of physics. However, two further squares broke up when charged due to the effect of what happened to the first one on their morale. Believing they were beaten, they failed to maintain cohesion and their anticipated defeat became a reality.

So, what’s the point?

Greger Wikstrand and I have been trading posts on the topic of innovation since late 2015. Greger’s latest, “Spring clean your mind”, deals with the concepts of infowar and propaganda (aka “fake news”). This is another example of what Greger’s written about in the past, a concept he dubbed black hat innovation: “Whenever there is innovation or invention there is also misuse”.

Whether you call it black hat innovation or abuse cases (my term), it’s a concept we need to be aware of. It is a concept that affect us, not just as technologists, but as ordinary human beings. We need to be aware of the potential for active abuse. We also need to be aware of the potential for problems that caused by things that make our life more convenient or more pleasant:

This isn’t to say that Facebook is some evil empire, but that we need to bear some responsibility for not allowing ourselves to become trapped in an echo chamber:

It’s something we need to take responsibility for. We can’t hope for a technological deus ex machina to bail us out. As Tim Bass recently noted on his Cyberspace Event Processing Blog:

The big “AI” processing “pie in the sky” plan for cyber defense we all read about is not going to work “as advertised” because we cannot program machines to solve problems that we cannot solve ourselves. There is no substitute for the advancement and development of the human mind to solve complex problems. Delegating the task of “thinking” to machines is doomed to fail, and fail “big time”. It seems like humanity has, in a manner of speaking, “given up” on humans developing the intelligence to manage and defend cyberspace, so they have decided to turn it all over to machines.

Wrong approach!

The right approach, in my opinion, is to be intentional and active in learning. Consuming information should not be a matter of sitting back and shoveling it in, but one of filtering, testing, and appraising. How much time do you spend reading viewpoints you absolutely disagree with? How much time do you spend exploring information?

In 1645, as he was looking back at his long and successful career as a samurai, where a single loss often meant death, Miyamoto Musashi concluded that although rigorous sword practice was essential, it wasn’t enough. At the end of the first chapter of A Book of Five Rings, he also admonishes aspiring warriors to “Cultivate a wide variety of interests in the arts” and “Be knowledgable in a wide variety of occupations.”

Similarly, Boyd, who was was a keen student of Musashi, described his method as looking across a wide variety of fields — “domains” he called them — searching for underlying principles, “invariants.” He would then experiment with syntheses involving these principles until he evolved a solution to the problem he was working on. Because they involved bits and pieces from a variety of domains, he called these syntheses “snowmobiles” (skis, handlebar from a bicycle, etc.)

 

Perception is critical. We are made or unmade, less by our circumstances and more by our perception of them. Companies that have suffered disruptions have done so not because they were unable to respond, but because they either believed themselves invulnerable or believed themselves incapable. Likewise, as individuals, we have control over what information we expose ourselves to and how we manage that exposure.

Sense-making is a critical skill that requires active involvement. The passive get passed by.

[Painting of the battle of Garcia Hernandez by Adolf Northen, housed in the Landesmuseum Hannover. Photo by Michael Ritter via Wikimedia Commons]

Form Follows Function on SPaMCast 426

SPaMCAST logo

One of the benefits of being a regular on Tom Cagley’s Software Process and Measurement (SPaMCast) podcast is getting to take part in the year-end round table (episode 426). Jeremy Berriault, Steve Tendon, Jon M. Quigley and I joined Tom for a discussion of:

  1. Whether software quality would be a focus of IT in 2017
  2. Whether Agile is over, at least as far as Agile as a principle-driven movement
  3. Whether security will be more important than quality and productivity in the year ahead

It was a great discussion and, as Tom noted, a great way to finish off the tenth year of the SPAMCast and kickoff year eleven.

You can find all my SPaMCast episodes using under the SPAMCast Appearances category on this blog. Enjoy!

Apple vs. the FBI: Winning and Losing

Drawing of an Apple with a Worm

The FBI, with the help of a third party, has managed to gain access to Syed Farook’s iPhone. In a court filing Monday, the FBI stated that they did not require Apple’s help any longer.

Apple, on the other hand, now has a need to know what vulnerability was exploited to access the phone. Whether the FBI will provide that information is questionable. From a purely legal standpoint, it seems there is no obligation for it to disclose that to Apple:

Attorneys for Apple are researching legal tactics to compel the government to turn over the specifics, but the company had no update on its progress Tuesday.

The FBI could argue that the most crucial information is part of a nondisclosure agreement, solely in the hands of the outside party that assisted the agency, or cannot be released until the investigation is complete.

Many experts agree that the government faces no obvious legal obligation to provide information to Apple. But authorities, like professional security researchers, have recognized that a world in which computers are crucial in commerce and communications shouldn’t be riddled with technical security flaws.

So, had Apple decided not to fight the FBI’s writ, it would likely have full control (IP ownership and physical custody) over a handset-specific version of IOS that only bypassed the feature limiting access attempts and was only provided pursuant to a legal writ. Now, the FBI has access (through a third party) to what’s reputed to be the same capability, but Apple does not. It appears that there may be no way to compel the FBI to share that information with Apple.

So the question is: did Apple win or lose in this case? More importantly, did Apple’s customers win or lose?

Law of Unintended Consequences – Security Edition

Bank Vault

More isn’t always better. When it comes to security, more can even be worse.

As the use of encryption has increased, management of encryption keys has emerged as a pain point for many organizations. The amount of encrypted data passing through corporate firewalls, which has doubled over the last year, poses a severe challenge to security professionals responsible for protecting corporate data. The mechanism that’s intended to protect information in transit does so regardless of whether the transmission is legitimate or not.

Greater complexity, which means greater inconvenience, can lead to decreased security. Usability increases security by increasing compliance. Alarm fatigue means that as the number of warnings increase, so does the likelihood of their being ignored

Like any design issue, security should be approached from a systems thinking viewpoint (at least in my opinion). Rather than a one-dimensional, naive approach, a holistic one that recognizes and deals with the interrelationships is more likely to get it right. Thinking solely in terms of actions while ignoring the reactions that result from them hampers effective decision-making.

To be effective, security should be comprehensive, coordinated, collaborative, and contextual.

Comprehensive security is security that involves the entire range of security concerns: application, network, platform (OS, etc.), and physical. Strength in one or more of these areas means little if only one of the others is fatally compromised. Coordination of the efforts of those responsible for these aspects is essential to ensure that the various security enhance rather than hinder security. This coordination is better achieved via a collaborative process that reconciles the costs and benefits systemically than a prescriptive one imposed without regard to those factors. Lastly, practices should be tailored to the context of the problem at hand. Value at risk and amount of exposure are two factors that should help determine the effort expended. Putting a bank vault door on the garden shed not only wastes money, but also hinders security by taking those resources away from an area of greater need.

As with most quality of service concerns, security is not a binary toggle but a continuum. Matching the response to the need is a good way to stay on the right side of the law of unintended consequences.

“Design? Security and Privacy? YAGNI” on Iasa Global

Two of my favorite “bumper sticker philosophies” (i.e. short, pithy, and incredibly simplistic sayings) are “the simplest thing that could possibly work” and YAGNI. Avoiding unnecessary complexity and unneeded features are good ideas at first glance. The problem is determining what is unnecessary and unneeded. Just meeting the functional requirements is unlikely to be sufficient.

Read “Design? Security and Privacy? YAGNI” on the Iasa Global site for a post about how it’s important to have someone responsible for Quality of Service requirements in general and security in particular.